# Pair-state basis calculations¶

## Preliminaries¶

Relative orientation of the two atoms can be described with polar angle $$\theta$$ (range $$0-\pi$$) and azimuthal angle $$\phi$$ (range $$0-2\pi$$). The $$\hat{z}$$ axis is here specified relative to the laser driving. For circularly polarized laser light, this is the direction of laser beam propagation. For linearly polarized light, this is the plane of the electric field polarization, perpendicular to the laser direction.

Internal coupling between the two atoms in $$|n,l,j,m_1\rangle$$ and $$|nn,ll,jj,m_2\rangle$$ is calculated easily for the two atoms positioned so that $$\theta = 0$$, and for other angles wignerD matrices are used to change a basis and perform calculation in the basis where couplings are more clearly seen.

## Overview¶

PairStateInteractions Methods

 PairStateInteractions.defineBasis(theta, …) Finds relevant states in the vicinity of the given pair-state PairStateInteractions.getC6perturbatively(…) Calculates $$C_6$$ from second order perturbation theory. PairStateInteractions.getLeRoyRadius() Returns Le Roy radius for initial pair-state. PairStateInteractions.diagonalise(rangeR, …) Finds eigenstates in atom pair basis. PairStateInteractions.plotLevelDiagram([…]) Plots pair state level diagram PairStateInteractions.showPlot([interactive]) Shows level diagram printed by PairStateInteractions.plotLevelDiagram PairStateInteractions.exportData(fileBase[, …]) Exports PairStateInteractions calculation data. PairStateInteractions.getC6fromLevelDiagram(…) Finds $$C_6$$ coefficient for original pair state. PairStateInteractions.getC3fromLevelDiagram(…) Finds $$C_3$$ coefficient for original pair state. PairStateInteractions.getVdwFromLevelDiagram(…) Finds $$r_{\rm vdW}$$ coefficient for original pair state.

StarkMapResonances Methods

 StarkMapResonances.findResonances(nMin, …) Finds near-resonant dipole-coupled pair-states StarkMapResonances.showPlot([interactive]) Plots initial state Stark map and its dipole-coupled resonances

## Detailed documentation¶

Pair-state basis level diagram calculations

Calculates Rydberg spaghetti of level diagrams, as well as pertubative C6 and similar properties. It also allows calculation of Foster resonances tuned by DC electric fields.

Example

Calculation of the Rydberg eigenstates in pair-state basis for Rubidium in the vicinity of the $$|60~S_{1/2}~m_j=1/2,~60~S_{1/2}~m_j=1/2\rangle$$ state. Colour highlights coupling strength from state $$6~P_{1/2}~m_j=1/2$$ with $$\pi$$ ($$q=0$$) polarized light. eigenstates:

from arc import *
calc1 = PairStateInteractions(Rubidium(), 60, 0, 0.5, 60, 0, 0.5,0.5, 0.5)
calc1.defineBasis( 0., 0., 4, 5,10e9)
# optionally we can save now results of calculation for future use
saveCalculation(calc1,"mycalculation.pkl")
calculation1.diagonalise(linspace(1,10.0,30),250,progressOutput = True,drivingFromState=[6,1,0.5,0.5,0])
calc1.plotLevelDiagram()
calc1.ax.set_xlim(1,10)
calc1.ax.set_ylim(-2,2)
calc1.showPlot()

class arc.calculations_atom_pairstate.PairStateInteractions(atom, n, l, j, nn, ll, jj, m1, m2, interactionsUpTo=1)[source]

Calculates Rydberg level diagram (spaghetti) for the given pair state

Initializes Rydberg level spaghetti calculation for the given atom in the vicinity of the given pair state. For details of calculation see Ref. . For a quick start point example see interactions example snippet.

Parameters: atom (AlkaliAtom) – ={ alkali_atom_data.Lithium6, alkali_atom_data.Lithium7, alkali_atom_data.Sodium, alkali_atom_data.Potassium39, alkali_atom_data.Potassium40, alkali_atom_data.Potassium41, alkali_atom_data.Rubidium85, alkali_atom_data.Rubidium87, alkali_atom_data.Caesium } Select the alkali metal for energy level diagram calculation n (int) – principal quantum number for the first atom l (int) – orbital angular momentum for the first atom j (float) – total angular momentum for the first atom nn (int) – principal quantum number for the second atom ll (int) – orbital angular momentum for the second atom jj (float) – total angular momentum for the second atom m1 (float) – projection of the total angular momentum on z-axis for the first atom m2 (float) – projection of the total angular momentum on z-axis for the second atom interactionsUpTo (int) – Optional. If set to 1, includes only dipole-dipole interactions. If set to 2 includes interactions up to quadrupole-quadrupole. Default value is 1.

References

  T. G Walker, M. Saffman, PRA 77, 032723 (2008) https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.77.032723

Examples

Advanced interfacing of pair-state interactions calculations (PairStateInteractions class). This is an advanced example intended for building up extensions to the existing code. If you want to directly access the pair-state interaction matrix, constructed by defineBasis, you can assemble it easily from diagonal part (stored in matDiagonal ) and off-diagonal matrices whose spatial dependence is $$R^{-3},R^{-4},R^{-5}$$ stored in that order in matR. Basis states are stored in basisStates array.

>>> from arc import *
>>> calc = PairStateInteractions(Rubidium(), 60,0,0.5, 60,0,0.5, 0.5,0.5,interactionsUpTo = 1)
>>> # theta=0, phi = 0, range of pqn, range of l, deltaE = 25e9
>>> calc.defineBasis(0 ,0 , 5, 5, 25e9, progressOutput=True)
>>> # now calc stores interaction matrix and relevant basis
>>> # we can access this directly and generate interaction matrix
>>> # at distance rval :
>>> rval = 4  # in mum
>>> matrix = calc.matDiagonal
>>> rX = (rval*1.e-6)**3
>>> for matRX in self.matR:
>>>     matrix = matrix + matRX/rX
>>>     rX *= (rval*1.e-6)
>>> # matrix variable now holds full interaction matrix for
>>> # interacting atoms at distance rval calculated in
>>> # pair-state basis states can be accessed as
>>> basisStates = calc.basisStates

atom = None

atom type

basisStates = None

List of pair-states for calculation. In the form [[n1,l1,j1,mj1,n2,l2,j2,mj2], …]. Each state is an array [n1,l1,j1,mj1,n2,l2,j2,mj2] corresponding to $$|n_1,l_1,j_1,m_{j1},n_2,l_2,j_2,m_{j2}\rangle$$ state. Calculated by defineBasis.

channel = None

states relevant for calculation, defined in J basis (not resolving $$m_j$$. Used as intermediary for full interaction matrix calculation by defineBasis.

coupling = None

List of matrices defineing coupling strengths between the states in J basis (not resolving $$m_j$$ ). Basis is given by channel. Used as intermediary for full interaction matrix calculation by defineBasis.

defineBasis(theta, phi, nRange, lrange, energyDelta, Bz=0, progressOutput=False, debugOutput=False)[source]

Finds relevant states in the vicinity of the given pair-state

Finds relevant pair-state basis and calculates interaction matrix. Pair-state basis is saved in basisStates. Interaction matrix is saved in parts depending on the scaling with distance. Diagonal elements matDiagonal, correponding to relative energy defects of the pair-states, don’t change with interatomic separation. Off diagonal elements can depend on distance as $$R^{-3}, R^{-4}$$ or $$R^{-5}$$, corresponding to dipole-dipole ($$C_3$$ ), dipole-qudrupole ($$C_4$$ ) and quadrupole-quadrupole coupling ($$C_5$$ ) respectively. These parts of the matrix are stored in matR in that order. I.e. matR stores dipole-dipole coupling ($$\propto R^{-3}$$), matR stores dipole-quadrupole couplings etc.

Parameters: theta (float) – relative orientation of the two atoms (see figure on top of the page), range 0 to $$\pi$$ phi (float) – relative orientation of the two atoms (see figure on top of the page), range 0 to $$2\pi$$ nRange (int) – how much below and above the given principal quantum number of the pair state we should be looking? lrange (int) – what is the maximum angular orbital momentum state that we are including in calculation energyDelta (float) – what is maximum energy difference ( $$\Delta E/h$$ in Hz) between the original pair state and the other pair states that we are including in calculation Bz (float) – optional, magnetic field directed along z-axis in units of Tesla. Calculation will be correct only for weak magnetic fields, where paramagnetic term is much stronger then diamagnetic term. Diamagnetic term is neglected. progressOutput (bool) – optional, False by default. If true, prints information about the progress of the calculation. debugOutput (bool) – optional, False by default. If true, similar to progressOutput=True, this will print information about the progress of calculations, but with more verbose output.

alkali_atom_functions.saveCalculation and alkali_atom_functions.loadSavedCalculation for information on saving intermediate results of calculation for later use.

diagonalise(rangeR, noOfEigenvectors, drivingFromState=[0, 0, 0, 0, 0], eigenstateDetuning=0.0, sortEigenvectors=False, progressOutput=False, debugOutput=False)[source]

Finds eigenstates in atom pair basis.

ARPACK ( scipy.sparse.linalg.eigsh) calculation of the noOfEigenvectors eigenvectors closest to the original state. If drivingFromState is specified as [n,l,j,mj,q] coupling between the pair-states and the situation where one of the atoms in the pair state basis is in $$|n,l,j,m_j\rangle$$ state due to driving with a laser field that drives $$q$$ transition (+1,0,-1 for $$\sigma^-$$, $$\pi$$ and $$\sigma^+$$ transitions respectively) is calculated and marked by the colourmaping these values on the obtained eigenvectors.

Parameters: rangeR (array) – Array of values for distance between the atoms (in $$\mu$$ m) for which we want to calculate eigenstates. noOfEigenvectors (int) – number of eigen vectors closest to the energy of the original (unperturbed) pair state. Has to be smaller then the total number of states. eigenstateDetuning (float, optional) – Default is 0. This specifies detuning from the initial pair-state (in Hz) around which we want to find noOfEigenvectors eigenvectors. This is useful when looking only for couple of off-resonant features. drivingFromState ([int,int,float,float,int]) – Optional. State of the one of the atoms from the original pair-state basis from which we try to dribe to the excited pair-basis manifold. By default, program will calculate just contribution of the original pair-state in the eigenstates obtained by diagonalization, and will highlight it’s admixure by colour mapping the obtained eigenstates plot. sortEigenvectors (bool) – optional, False by default. Tries to sort eigenvectors so that given eigen vector index corresponds to adiabatically changing eigenstate, as detirmined by maximising overlap between old and new eigenvectors. progressOutput (bool) – optional, False by default. If true, prints information about the progress of the calculation. debugOutput (bool) – optional, False by default. If true, similar to progressOutput=True, this will print information about the progress of calculations, but with more verbose output.
exportData(fileBase, exportFormat='csv')[source]

Exports PairStateInteractions calculation data.

Only supported format (selected by default) is .csv in a human-readable form with a header that saves details of calculation. Function saves three files: 1) filebase _r.csv; 2) filebase _energyLevels 3) filebase _highlight

For more details on the format, see header of the saved files.

Parameters: filebase (string) – filebase for the names of the saved files without format extension. Add as a prefix a directory path if necessary (e.g. saving outside the current working directory) exportFormat (string) – optional. Format of the exported file. Currently only .csv is supported but this can be extended in the future.
getC3fromLevelDiagram(rStart, rStop, showPlot=False, minStateContribution=0.0, resonantBranch=1)[source]

Finds $$C_3$$ coefficient for original pair state.

Function first finds for each distance in the range [rStart , rStop] the eigen state with highest contribution of the original state. One can set optional parameter minStateContribution to value in the range [0,1), so that function finds only states if they have contribution of the original state that is bigger then minStateContribution.

Once original pair-state is found in the range of interatomic distances, from smallest rStart to the biggest rStop, function will try to perform fitting of the corresponding state energy $$E(R)$$ at distance $$R$$ to the function $$A+C_3/R^3$$ where $$A$$ is some offset.

Parameters: rStart (float) – smallest inter-atomic distance to be used for fitting rStop (float) – maximum inter-atomic distance to be used for fitting showPlot (bool) – If set to true, it will print the plot showing fitted energy level and the obtained best fit. Default is False minStateContribution (float) – valid values are in the range [0,1). It specifies minimum amount of the original state in the given energy state necessary for the state to be considered for the adiabatic continuation of the original unperturbed pair state. resonantBranch (int) – optional, default +1. For resonant interactions we have two branches with identical state contributions. In this case, we will select only positively detuned branch (for resonantBranch = +1) or negatively detuned branch (fore resonantBranch = -1) depending on the value of resonantBranch optional parameter $$C_3$$ measured in $$\text{GHz }\mu\text{m}^6$$ on success; If unsuccessful returns False. float

Note

In order to use this functions, highlighting in diagonalise should be based on the original pair state contribution of the eigenvectors (that this, drivingFromState parameter should not be set, which corresponds to drivingFromState = [0,0,0,0,0]).

getC6fromLevelDiagram(rStart, rStop, showPlot=False, minStateContribution=0.0)[source]

Finds $$C_6$$ coefficient for original pair state.

Function first finds for each distance in the range [ rStart , rStop ] the eigen state with highest contribution of the original state. One can set optional parameter minStateContribution to value in the range [0,1), so that function finds only states if they have contribution of the original state that is bigger then minStateContribution.

Once original pair-state is found in the range of interatomic distances, from smallest rStart to the biggest rStop, function will try to perform fitting of the corresponding state energy $$E(R)$$ at distance $$R$$ to the function $$A+C_6/R^6$$ where $$A$$ is some offset.

Parameters: rStart (float) – smallest inter-atomic distance to be used for fitting rStop (float) – maximum inter-atomic distance to be used for fitting showPlot (bool) – If set to true, it will print the plot showing fitted energy level and the obtained best fit. Default is False minStateContribution (float) – valid values are in the range [0,1). It specifies minimum amount of the original state in the given energy state necessary for the state to be considered for the adiabatic continuation of the original unperturbed pair state. $$C_6$$ measured in $$\text{GHz }\mu\text{m}^6$$ on success; If unsuccessful returns False. float

Note

In order to use this functions, highlighting in diagonalise should be based on the original pair state contribution of the eigenvectors (that this, drivingFromState parameter should not be set, which corresponds to drivingFromState = [0,0,0,0,0]).

getC6perturbatively(theta, phi, nRange, energyDelta)[source]

Calculates $$C_6$$ from second order perturbation theory.

Calculates $$C_6=\sum_{\rm r',r''}|\langle {\rm r',r''}|V| {\rm r1,r2}\rangle|^2/\Delta_{\rm r',r''}$$, where $$\Delta_{\rm r',r''}\equiv E({\rm r',r''})-E({\rm r1, r2})$$

This calculation is faster then full diagonalization, but it is valid only far from the so called spaghetti region that occurs when atoms are close to each other. In that region multiple levels are strongly coupled, and one needs to use full diagonalization. In region where perturbative calculation is correct, energy level shift can be obtained as $$V(R)=-C_6/R^6$$

Parameters: theta (float) – orientation of inter-atomic axis with respect to quantization axis ($$z$$) in Euler coordinates (measured in units of radian) phi (float) – orientation of inter-atomic axis with respect to quantization axis ($$z$$) in Euler coordinates (measured in units of radian) nRange (int) – how much below and above the given principal quantum number of the pair state we should be looking energyDelta (float) – what is maximum energy difference ( $$\Delta E/h$$ in Hz) between the original pair state and the other pair states that we are including in calculation $$C_6$$ measured in $$\text{GHz }\mu\text{m}^6$$ float

Example

If we want to quickly calculate $$C_6$$ for two Rubidium atoms in state $$62 D_{3/2} m_j=3/2$$, positioned in space along the shared quantization axis:

from arc import *
calculation = PairStateInteractions(Rubidium(), 62, 2, 1.5, 62, 2, 1.5, 1.5, 1.5)
c6 = calculation.getC6perturbatively(0,0, 5, 25e9)
print "C_6 = %.0f GHz (mu m)^6" % c6


Which returns:

C_6 = 767 GHz (mu m)^6


Quick calculation of angular anisotropy of for Rubidium $$D_{2/5},m_j=5/2$$ states:

# Rb 60 D_{2/5}, mj=2.5 , 60 D_{2/5}, mj=2.5 pair state
calculation1 = PairStateInteractions(Rubidium(), 60, 2, 2.5, 60, 2, 2.5, 2.5, 2.5)
# list of atom orientations
thetaList = np.linspace(0,pi,30)
# do calculation of C6 pertubatively for all atom orientations
c6 = []
for theta in thetaList:
value = calculation1.getC6perturbatively(theta,0,5,25e9)
c6.append(value)
print ("theta = %.2f * pi       C6 = %.2f GHz  mum^6" % (theta/pi,value))
# plot results
plot(thetaList/pi,c6,"b-")
title("Rb, pairstate  60 $D_{5/2},m_j = 5/2$, 60 $D_{5/2},m_j = 5/2$")
xlabel(r"$\Theta /\pi$")
ylabel(r"$C_6$ (GHz $\mu$m${}^6$")
show()

getLeRoyRadius()[source]

Returns Le Roy radius for initial pair-state.

Le Roy radius  is defined as $$2(\langle r_1^2 \rangle^{1/2} + \langle r_2^2 \rangle^{1/2})$$, where $$r_1$$ and $$r_2$$ are electron coordinates for the first and the second atom in the initial pair-state. Below this radius, calculations are not valid since electron wavefunctions start to overlap.

Returns: LeRoy radius measured in $$\mu m$$ float

References

  R.J. Le Roy, Can. J. Phys. 52, 246 (1974) http://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/abs/10.1139/p74-035
getVdwFromLevelDiagram(rStart, rStop, showPlot=False, minStateContribution=0.0)[source]

Finds $$r_{\rm vdW}$$ coefficient for original pair state.

Function first finds for each distance in the range [rStart,rStop] the eigen state with highest contribution of the original state. One can set optional parameter minStateContribution to value in the range [0,1), so that function finds only states if they have contribution of the original state that is bigger then minStateContribution.

Once original pair-state is found in the range of interatomic distances, from smallest rStart to the biggest rStop, function will try to perform fitting of the corresponding state energy $$E(R)$$ at distance $$R$$ to the function $$A+B\frac{1-\sqrt{1+(r_{\rm vdW}/r)^6}}{1-\sqrt{1+r_{\rm vdW}^6}}$$

where $$A$$ and $$B$$ are some offset.
Parameters: rStart (float) – smallest inter-atomic distance to be used for fitting rStop (float) – maximum inter-atomic distance to be used for fitting showPlot (bool) – If set to true, it will print the plot showing fitted energy level and the obtained best fit. Default is False minStateContribution (float) – valid values are in the range [0,1). It specifies minimum amount of the original state in the given energy state necessary for the state to be considered for the adiabatic continuation of the original unperturbed pair state. $$r_{\rm vdW}$$ measured in $$\mu\text{m}$$ on success; If unsuccessful returns False. float

Note

In order to use this functions, highlighting in diagonalise should be based on the original pair state contribution of the eigenvectors (that this, drivingFromState parameter should not be set, which corresponds to drivingFromState = [0,0,0,0,0]).

interactionsUpTo = None

” Specifies up to which approximation we include in pair-state interactions. By default value is 1, corresponding to pair-state interactions up to dipole-dipole coupling. Value of 2 is also supported, corresponding to pair-state interactions up to quadrupole-quadrupole coupling.

j = None

pair-state definition – total angular momentum of the first atom

jj = None

pair-state definition – total angular momentum of the second atom

l = None

pair-state definition – orbital angular momentum of the first atom

ll = None

pair-state definition – orbital angular momentum of the second atom

m1 = None

pair-state definition – projection of the total ang. momentum for the first atom

m2 = None

pair-state definition – projection of the total angular momentum for the second atom

matDiagonal = None

Part of interaction matrix in pair-state basis that doesn’t depend on inter-atomic distance. E.g. diagonal elements of the interaction matrix, that describe energies of the pair states in unperturbed basis, will be stored here. Basis states are stored in basisStates. Calculated by defineBasis.

matR = None

Stores interaction matrices in pair-state basis that scale as $$1/R^3$$, $$1/R^4$$ and $$1/R^5$$ with distance in matR, matR and matR respectively. These matrices correspond to dipole-dipole ( $$C_3$$), dipole-quadrupole ( $$C_4$$) and quadrupole-quadrupole ( $$C_5$$) interactions coefficients. Basis states are stored in basisStates. Calculated by defineBasis.

matrixElement = None

matrixElement[i] gives index of state in channel basis (that doesn’t resolve m_j states), for the given index i of the state in basisStates ( $$m_j$$ resolving) basis.

n = None

pair-state definition – principal quantum number of the first atom

nn = None

pair-state definition – principal quantum number of the second atom

originalPairStateIndex = None

index of the original n,l,j,m1,nn,ll,jj,m2 pair-state in the basisStates basis.

plotLevelDiagram(highlightColor='red', highlightScale='linear')[source]

Plots pair state level diagram

Call showPlot if you want to display a plot afterwards.

Parameters: highlightColor (string) – optional, specifies the colour used for state highlighting highlightScale (string) – optional, specifies scaling of state highlighting. Default is ‘linear’. Use ‘log-2’ or ‘log-3’ for logarithmic scale going down to 1e-2 and 1e-3 respectively. Logarithmic scale is useful for spotting weakly admixed states.
savePlot(filename='PairStateInteractions.pdf')[source]

Saves plot made by plotLevelDiagram

Parameters: filename (str, optional) – file location where the plot should be saved
showPlot(interactive=True)[source]

Shows level diagram printed by PairStateInteractions.plotLevelDiagram

By default, it will output interactive plot, which means that clicking on the state will show the composition of the clicked state in original basis (dominant elements)

Parameters: interactive (bool) – optional, by default it is True. If true, plotted graph will be interactive, i.e. users can click on the state to identify the state composition

Note

interactive=True has effect if the graphs are explored in usual matplotlib pop-up windows. It doesn’t have effect on inline plots in Jupyter (IPython) notebooks.

class arc.calculations_atom_pairstate.StarkMapResonances(atom1, state1, atom2, state2)[source]

Calculates pair state Stark maps for finding resonances

Tool for finding conditions for Foster resonances. For a given pair state, in a given range of the electric fields, looks for the pair-state that are close in energy and coupled via dipole-dipole interactions to the original pair-state.

Parameters: atom (AlkaliAtom) – ={ alkali_atom_data.Lithium6, alkali_atom_data.Lithium7, alkali_atom_data.Sodium, alkali_atom_data.Potassium39, alkali_atom_data.Potassium40, alkali_atom_data.Potassium41, alkali_atom_data.Rubidium85, alkali_atom_data.Rubidium87, alkali_atom_data.Caesium } the first atom in the pair-state state1 ([int,int,float,float]) – specification of the state of the first state as an array of values $$[n,l,j,m_j]$$ atom – ={ alkali_atom_data.Lithium6, alkali_atom_data.Lithium7, alkali_atom_data.Sodium, alkali_atom_data.Potassium39, alkali_atom_data.Potassium40, alkali_atom_data.Potassium41, alkali_atom_data.Rubidium85, alkali_atom_data.Rubidium87, alkali_atom_data.Caesium } the second atom in the pair-state state2 ([int,int,float,float]) – specification of the state of the first state as an array of values $$[n,l,j,m_j]$$

Note

In checking if certain state is dipole coupled to the original state, only the highest contributing state is checked for dipole coupling. This should be fine if one is interested in resonances in weak fields. For stronger fields, one might want to include effect of coupling to other contributing base states.

findResonances(nMin, nMax, maxL, eFieldList, energyRange=[-5000000000.0, 5000000000.0], Bz=0, progressOutput=False)[source]

Finds near-resonant dipole-coupled pair-states

For states in range of principal quantum numbers [nMin,nMax] and orbital angular momentum [0,maxL], for a range of electric fields given by eFieldList function will find near-resonant pair states.

Only states that are in the range given by energyRange will be extracted from the pair-state Stark maps.

Parameters: nMin (int) – minimal principal quantum number of the state to be included in the StarkMap calculation nMax (int) – maximal principal quantum number of the state to be included in the StarkMap calculation maxL (int) – maximum value of orbital angular momentum for the states to be included in the calculation eFieldList ([float]) – list of the electric fields (in V/m) for which to calculate level diagram (StarkMap) Bz (float) – optional, magnetic field directed along z-axis in units of Tesla. Calculation will be correct only for weak magnetic fields, where paramagnetic term is much stronger then diamagnetic term. Diamagnetic term is neglected. energyRange ([float,float]) – optinal argument. Minimal and maximal energy of that some dipole-coupled state should have in order to keep it in the plot (in units of Hz). By default it finds states that are $$\pm 5$$ GHz progressOutput (bool, optional) – if True prints the progress of calculation; Set to false by default.
showPlot(interactive=True)[source]

Plots initial state Stark map and its dipole-coupled resonances

Parameters: interactive (optional, bool) – if True (by default) points on plot will be clickable so that one can find the state labels and their composition (if they are heavily admixed).